History of Saffron
Saffron is a plant of the family Iris whose scientific and botanical name is Sativus Linnaeus crocus. This plant has beautiful purple flowers and a stigma in a spicy red and funnel-shaped color. This colorful three-branch stigma has a pleasant fragrance and has edible, pharmaceutical and colorful uses. What is known as Saffron is this trident section.To prepare one kilogram of Saffron, about 500,000 flowers are needed, each of which is harvested in autumn when they are completely raised from the ground
by hand and before sunrise.
The application of Saffron is not related to recent times and has a
historical history and several thousand years that we examine in this section Saffron is one of the native plants of Iran, the mainland of which has been in the foothills of the Alvand Mountains in Hamedan and its vicinity since the Medes rule.
Iranians are said to be the first people to recognize and cultivate this valuable plant. Saffron has long been cultivated in different regions of Iran such as Qom, Isfahan, Fars and southern Khorasan. Saffron cultivation in southern Khorasan has a 700-year history and is currently the first in the world in terms of Saffron cultivation.
In the Achaemenid era, special attention was paid to agriculture and horticulture, and Darius was personally interested in planting plants. At that time, alchemy and pharmacy have progressed a lot, including potions to relieve the fatigue of elders, which were made from Saffron, cardamom and cinnamon with fun and reinforcing properties. Saffron was also used in the preparation of a special bread for courtiers.
During the Parthian era, Iran economically strengthened its relationship with Babylon, Syria and Palestine and exported Saffron to these countries.
The well-dressed women of the potion party prepared a type of herbal syrup with fat, milk, Saffron and date wine and used it for makeup.In the Sassanid era, Saffron was used in dyeing silk and cloth in addition to food and treatment and makeup, and court letters were writte paper impregnated with rose water and Saffron. After the extinction of the Sassanids and the emergence of Islam, Iranians gave all their power to Islam.
One of the services of the great and ancient Civilization of Iran to The Civilization of Islam was the introduction of flowers, plants, spices and food and therapy, which included Saffron. During the Abbasid period, Saffron was used in foods and medicinal uses, as well as to remove the merits and dye the hair. In addition, Saffron was one of the gifts and ransoms due to its high value.
Between 254 and 292 Muslims established large gardens and farms in Egypt and cultivated a variety of plants, including Saffron. In the Mongol invasion of Iran, Saffron was introduced to the Chinese and its cultivation became common in China.
Iranian Saffron was introduced to Spain by Arabs and then made its way to Europe through Spain and Asia Minor.
In Iran, the tradition of "Saffron spraying" was common at ceremonies welcoming elders and conquerors. Since Greece, Rome and ancient Persia have long been associated and often at odds, Iranians are said to have recognized Saffron to Rome and Greece. In the 7th century CE, Saffron made its way to China.
After the conquest of Andalucia in Spain by Arabs and Muslims of Iranian descent in the 18th century, Saffron cultivation became common in an area called Walden in England, and today it is known as Saffron Walden. It seems that during the Muslim invasion of Kashmir, Saffron cultivation also became common in India because there was no mention of Saffron cultivation in the country in pre-Islamic sources.
In India, Saffron was used for food and cosmetic purposes, and Indian women put Saffron moles on their foreheads.Currently, the world's Saffron production is more than 200 tons, which is the first place in terms of production, followed by Spain, India, Turkey, Greece, China, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, Russia and Pakistan.